Marcuse (2003, p. 148) made this claim
This claim as been made (Marcuse, 2003, p. 148).
Hunt and WIlkins (2007, pp. 45-47) dispute this point
This point is disputed (Hunt & WIlkins, 2007, pp. 45-47).
Three to five authors (first instance)
Baxter, Smith, Taylor, and Hunt...this proposal (2005, pp. 203-05)
Three to five authors (subsequent instances)
Baxter et al. (2005) made this proposal.
or ...this proposal (Baxter et al., 2005)
Six or more authors
Johnson et al. (2010) argued...
...was argued (Johnson et al., 2010).
Work with no author
The book College Bound Seniors (2008)...
("A New Strategy for FIghting AIDS," 2001).
Work by a corporate author
The National Research Council (2005) states...
(National Research Council, 2005).
Two or more works in the same parentheses
(Harlow, 1999; Smith, 2001)
Two or more works by the same author in the same year
Studies by Jones (2009a) showed that...
Jones (2009b) also showed that...
When you use a quote, idea, or information from a source in your paper, you must cite the source in your References list. This is important not only to give credit to the original source (and avoid plagiarism!), but also to ensure that anyone reading your paper can go back to the source and locate exactly where that quote or idea came from.
Coca-Cola was originally invented by an American pharmacist to be used as a stimulating tonic (Standage, 2005, p. 5).
The in-text citation "(Standage, 2005, p. 5)" points readers to the following citation in the References list.
Standage, T. (2005). A History of the World in 6 Glasses. New York: Walker and Company.
In the above example, a reader can see that the information in the first sentence can be found on page 5 of Standage. When they look in the References for "Standage" they see the citation that lists the book in which you found the information. Now the reader can find that book, go to page 5, and see the information for themselves.