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APA Citation: In-Text Citations

Select the blue tab for the type of citation you need.

Citing Sources

When you use a quote, idea, or information from a source in your paper, you must cite the source in your References list.

For example:

Coca-Cola was originally invented by an American pharmacist to be used as a stimulating tonic (Standage, 2005, p. 5).

The in-text citation "(Standage, 2005, p. 5)" points readers to the following citation in the References list.

Standage, T. (2005). A History of the World in 6 Glasses. New York: Walker and Company.

In-Text Citation Examples


One author



Marcuse (2003, p. 148) made this claim.


This claim has been made (Marcuse, 2003, p. 148).



Two authors



Hunt and Wilkins (2007, pp. 45-47) dispute this point.


This point is disputed (Hunt & Wilkins, 2007, pp. 45-47).



Three to five authors

(first instance)


Baxter, Smith, Taylor, and Hunt...this proposal (2005, pp. 203-05).


...this proposal (Baxter, Smith, Taylor, & Hunt, 2005, pp 203-05).


Three to five authors

(subsequent instances)

Baxter et al. (2005) made this proposal.


... this proposal (Baxter et al., 2005).

Six or more authors


Johnson et al. (2010) argued...


.... was argued (Johnson et al., 2010).



Work with no author



The book College Bound Seniors (2008)...


("A New Strategy for Fighting AIDS," 2001).



Work by a corporate author



The National Research Council (2005) states...


(National Research Council, 2005).


Two or more works in the

same parentheses


(Harlow, 1999; Smith, 2001)




Two or more works by the

same author in the same year

Studies by Jones (2009a) showed that...

Jones (2009b) also showed that...